Forecast Discussions mentioning any of "HRRR" "RAP" "RUC13" "RUC" "RR" received at GSD on 11/01/19

Area Forecast Discussion
National Weather Service Buffalo NY
1052 PM EDT Thu Oct 31 2019 .SYNOPSIS... Low pressure will strengthen as it moves across the eastern Great Lakes this evening and into southern Quebec by Friday morning. Heavy rain will taper to showers from west to east tonight. Meanwhile, a strong cold front will sweep east across the region this evening, with damaging winds developing in the wake of the cold front tonight through Friday. Much colder air will move into the region Friday through the weekend, with the first snowflakes of the season possible in some areas east of the lakes. && .NEAR TERM /THROUGH FRIDAY/... At 10 p.m. a 991 surface low was centered across southern Ontario province with a cold front extending southward from this low just west of Watertown. There is a gust front with this front producing gusts of 40 to 50 mph. This front will continue to move eastward across Watertown and to the east of the cwa around midnight. The strongest winds will arrive around midnight across far western New York, and spread eastward from Rochester to Watertown between 1 a.m. and 4 a.m. The feature causing this is a secondary trough axis which is still across central Lake Erie late this evening. This coincides with a strong 60 knot low level jet, a good part of which will mix to the surface due to a well aligned WSW cold air advection flow. The HRRR has been useful in timing each of these features. A line of convection which developed east of Lake Ontario late this afternoon has moved to the east, which will end our severe weather threat. The steady rain will effectively end with the passage of the cold front, and then rain will transition to lake effect showers. This combined with previous rainfall will pose a risk for flooding east of Lake Ontario which is further discussed in the hydrology section. Damaging winds... Following the passage of the secondary trough late tonight and Friday morning, the boundary layer flow will veer more westerly as the low reaches southern Quebec. Following the wind direction change to westerly, there will be a period of a few hours with 60+ knot winds at 850mb. Past events have shown this strong westerly flow signaling wind damage spreading well inland across the interior Southern Tier and western Finger Lakes, rather than staying in the typical lake plain locations. Potential Vorticity analysis of this system is impressive, with the 1.5 PVU surface descending to below 700mb. This suggests a tropopause fold and intrusion of stratospheric air into the troposphere, which will enhance lapse rates and mixing potential. Furthermore, a fairly impressive isallobaric fall/rise couplet will pass across the eastern Great Lakes. Based on the lastest model guidance, thinking has changed little with the strongest winds occurring tonight northeast of Lake Erie, centered around the 11 pm to 5 am time frame, and Friday morning farther east once the flow veers more westerly, centered around the 4 am to 10 am time frame. Peak wind gusts will likely reach 60-65 mph in many areas, with some potential for 70 mph gusts especially near the eastern shores of Lake Ontario. The strong winds will diminish fairly quickly from west to east Friday morning into the early afternoon as the surface low and stronger winds aloft move east of the area. Following the cold front, the airmass will grow rapidly cold enough to support a lake response off Lake Erie later tonight, and by Friday morning off Lake Ontario. The boundary layer may become cold enough to support some wet snowflakes across higher terrain by early Friday morning, but marginal temperatures and a rapidly drying synoptic scale airmass should prevent accumulation. The lake effect rain/snow showers will taper off later Friday, but may not end altogether. && .SHORT TERM /FRIDAY NIGHT THROUGH SATURDAY NIGHT/... Surface high pressure across the Ohio Valley will build northeastward across PA into eastern NY Friday night. This will cause winds to shift out of the southwest, causing any light lake effect rain and snow showers to shift northeast of both lakes then diminish through the night as drier air and subsidence work in across the area. Cool temperatures expected Friday night with lows ranging from the upper 20s across the higher terrain to the mid 30s across the lake plains. There will be a break in the weather Saturday, with just the chance for a few rainshowers across far western NY by late in the day ahead of the next deepening shortwave trough and attendant surface cold front that will move across western and northcentral NY Saturday evening through the early overnight. Some warmer air will advect across the region on a southwesterly flow ahead the approaching system, which will help to boost temperatures a bit with highs mainly in the mid to upper 40s. Things get a bit more interesting Saturday night as cold air deepens across western and northcentral NY with temperatures aloft at 850mb dipping to around -6 to -7C overnight. There will be mix of rain and snow showers initially across the higher terrain, with just plain rain at lower elevations Saturday evening. Precipitation will transition to all snow across the higher elevations overnight, with a mix of rain and snow showers across the lower terrain. Lake effect rain and snow showers will initially be northeast of the lakes, transitioning to east of the lakes for the second half of the night. Increasing lake induced instability combined with equilibrium levels up to 15 Kft and saturation through the dendritic snow growth zone may lead to the first accumulating snows across the higher terrain, with possibly a sloppy coating in a few spots across the lower terrain. Temperatures will again fall into the upper 20s across the higher terrain, with mainly low 30s elsewhere. && .LONG TERM /SUNDAY THROUGH THURSDAY/... Lake snows will be ongoing but in the process of slowly weakening early Sunday. As we move through the day Sunday, lake snows will rapidly begin to shut down as equilibrium levels fall with a strengthening subsidence inversion. Lake snow will also be hampered by weak warm advection occuring in the mid-level. Additionally, air temperatures will be gradually warming over the course of the day, so any additional accumulations will be minor after sunrise Sunday. With that said, surface high pressure is forecast to build into the Mid-Atlantic which will bring dry and quiet weather to the Lower Lakes as we head into Monday. Monday, surface high pressure over the Mid-Atlantic will be the main player influencing our weather. This feature will bring dry and a bit warmer conditions to the region with highs rebounding into the 50s. Although, a weak low does race by just to our west and northwest as it heads into Canada. This feature may introduce some cloud cover across far Western New York. Tuesday into Tuesday night, precipitation chances again increase as another low races by to our west dragging its associated cold front across the region. Behind the cold front, a much colder air mass filters in across the Lower Lakes with some lake response. After Wednesday, significant differences arise with the ECMWF showing high pressure building in across the Lower Lakes with cold conditions(H850T -12C/-14C). While the GFS brings another weak weak wave across the forecast area with some light snow for late Thursday into Friday. Either way, it appears that the later half of the week will be colder at this point. && .AVIATION /03Z FRIDAY THROUGH TUESDAY/... A cold front located near KART at 02Z will push eastward across the region. This will produce a dramatic increase in wind speed, and also roughly mark the end of the steady rain and LLWS. Expect windy conditions behind the front, with mainly MVFR flight conditions. A secondary trough of low pressure will move through from west to east between 05Z and 10Z and this will trigger the start of the VERY WINDY conditions. Gusts of 50 to 55 kts can be expected at KBUF/KIAG/KROC/KART with slightly less windy conditions at KJHW. Expect strong winds to last into Friday morning before gradually diminishing from west to east mid-day Friday through Friday afternoon. There also will be some lake effect rain showers, mainly late tonight and early Friday morning. It will be cold enough that these may actually change over to snow at KJHW and may mix with snow at times elsewhere. These will taper off Friday afternoon and giveway to mainly VFR flight conditions. Outlook... Friday night and Saturday...Mainly VFR. A Chance of showers. Saturday night and Sunday...Mainly VFR, except IFR in lake effect rain and snow showers east of the lakes. Monday and Tuesday...VFR/MVFR with a chance of showers. && .MARINE... Low pressure will track from southern Ontario into southern Quebec overnight. A strong cold front will push east of Lake Ontario just before midnight. A secondary surface trough will move across the lakes after midnight, and this will key the onset of the strongest winds. This will result in storms and gales. The strongest winds will be found on the eastern end of Lake Erie and Lake Ontario, where a brief period of storm force winds is likely very late tonight and Friday morning. Waves will reach the 16-20 foot range on both lakes Erie and Ontario. The wind event will be relatively short lived, with winds quickly diminishing Friday afternoon. && .HYDROLOGY... Generally 1-2 inches of rain has fallen across the region with the bulk of the rain over west of Watertown. The exception is southern Oswego and Lewis counties where observations and radar estimates suggest totals already around 2 inches, with an additional half inch likely before the rain ends after midnight. This is likely to result in general flooding, and also may push several forecast points in the Black River basin above flood stage. With current rainfall amounts in line with what was modeled by the RFC, there appears a good chance that one or more forecast points in the Black River basin will reach flood stage. Another factor is that the bulk of the rain fell in a 6 hour period, which can speed up and maximize the crest. This will be closely monitored. Otherwise, basin averages are around 1.5 inches for the Buffalo creeks. These will be monitored too, with Lancaster likely to crest near flood stage but just about every other forecast point expected to crest near or below action stage. && .TIDES/COASTAL FLOODING... A strong cold front will move across the waters earlier this evening, and this caused a dramatic increase in winds which pushed Lake Erie over 9 feet earlier this evening. This is an unusual situation, with this initial rise shortly following the passage of the cold front, and then a secondary rise expected with the strongest winds which will be after midnight. Typically the highest levels for Lake Erie are with the initial surge, but in this case its likely that the second surge will exceed the first. Expect levels to hold steady before rising again after midnight. Expect a peak around 10 feet above low water datum at Buffalo, which would result in lakeshore flooding along the Lake Erie shore. Flooding is also likely along the Niagara River. The elevated Lake Erie water results in more water flowing down the Niagara River, which can cause flooding along the riverside in locations such as Cayuga Island in the City of Niagara Falls. Strong southwest to west winds combined with high lake levels will result in lakeshore flooding and shoreline erosion across Jefferson and Oswego counties. Flooding may also develop across the Thousand Islands region of the Saint Lawrence River as water is pushed down the river from Lake Ontario. && .BUF WATCHES/WARNINGS/ADVISORIES... NY...High Wind Warning until 1 PM EDT Friday for NYZ001>003-010>012- 019-020-085. Lakeshore Flood Warning until 1 PM EDT Friday for NYZ001-010- 019-085. High Wind Warning until 4 PM EDT Friday for NYZ004>008. Lakeshore Flood Warning until 8 PM EDT Friday for NYZ006-007. Flood Watch through Friday evening for NYZ006>008. High Wind Warning until 1 PM EDT Friday for NYZ013-014-021. MARINE...Gale Warning until 5 PM EDT Friday for LEZ020. Storm Warning until 5 AM EDT Friday for LEZ040-041. Gale Warning until 11 PM EDT this evening for LEZ040-041. Gale Warning until 5 PM EDT Friday for LOZ030. Gale Warning until 5 PM EDT Friday for LOZ042-043-062. Storm Warning until 1 PM EDT Friday for LOZ044-045-063>065. Gale Warning from 3 AM to 5 PM EDT Friday for SLZ022- 024. && $$ SYNOPSIS...Apffel/Hitchcock/TMA NEAR TERM...Apffel/Hitchcock/TMA SHORT TERM...JM LONG TERM...AR AVIATION...Apffel MARINE...Apffel/Hitchcock/TMA HYDROLOGY...Hitchcock/TMA TIDES/COASTAL FLOODING...Hitchcock/TMA/Apffel
Area Forecast Discussion
National Weather Service Caribou ME
1031 PM EDT Thu Oct 31 2019 .SYNOPSIS... Low pressure will lift across the St. Lawrence Valley tonight, and then cross the region on Friday. High pressure will build across the area Saturday. A cold front will cross the region Sunday. High pressure will build across the region Monday and Tuesday. && .NEAR TERM /THROUGH FRIDAY NIGHT/... 1030 pm update... Sfc low sits ovr the far ern end of Lk Ontario with sfc wmfront extending up thru swrn Quebec. This front is separating moist and humid air with temps and dwpts in the u50s/l60s ovr nern Maine and 40 temps and dwpts south of the St. Lawrence. It appears as tho the far nrn tip of nw Aroostook is on the cold side of the bndry with a temp at Estcourt Station of 41F. Still looking for near steady temps ovrngt and maybe even a slight rise thru daybreak. Convective squall line continues to race thru ern NY and PA and latest HRRR indicates it will go thru in a weakened state btwn 10z-12z Fri mrng. Hv adjusted pops drg the course of the ovrngt to show more of a dry slot and reduced pops ovr Downeast areas btwn 05z and 10z ahead of the main cold front. Still expecting LLJ to strengthen rapidly in the next few hrs with wind gusts to nr 60 MPH along the coast thru daybreak bfr jet moves eastward into NB. Still expecting strong mixing in wake of front to near 750mb fm about mid-mrng into the aftn hrs. Wl continue High Wind Warning for all areas thru all areas thru 22z Friday. Prev discussion blo... The third and final phase will be strong WSW pres grad winds on the back side of the low as it conts N toward Labrador from the St Lawrence vly of QB, with steep sfc-850mb lapse rates able to tap momentum transfer from left ovr 45 to 50 kt winds alf form late morn thru late aftn. Winds will begin to subside after 5 pm Fri with the loss of dytm htg. Latest 12z model trends shifted the axis of hvy rnfl a bit further NW than indicated from last ngt`s model guidance, with heaviest rnfl now xpctd ovr the far NW. Still, though, sig rnfl rates will be experienced ovr the N later this eve into the ovrngt hrs before msly migrating into Ern QB durg the lat ngt hrs, with the aforementioned quick band of shwrs with the the cold front shortly after day break Fri. Aftwrds, shwrs will become sct to isold SW to NE durg the late morn then end from the same direction Fri aftn. Temps will also be interesting, with most of the FA experiencing steady or even a little bit of rise in temps ovrngt, with only the NW receiving falling temps very late tngt and erly Fri morn behind the cold front. All other lctns in the FA will experience falling temps later Fri morn and aftn as the cold front moves E into the Can Maritimes. && .SHORT TERM /SATURDAY THROUGH SUNDAY NIGHT/... A low over Eastern Quebec will continue to move away from our area. Higher pressure will build across the area. And will remain over the area through Sunday morning. A low over James Bay with a trough extending south into Southern Quebec and a weak low in the Gulf of Maine will be the next systems to affect our area. The trough will move into Northwestern Maine Sunday afternoon bringing showers to the area. The low will track across the Gulf of Maine early Sunday morning bringing showers to Downeast Maine. Interior Downeast and the Central Highlands could see a trace of snow before sunrise Sunday morning. By the end of period, the low in the Gulf of Maine and the trough will both be east of our area, and higher pressure will build in. Loaded a blend of the GFS/NAM/ECMWF/GEM to smooth out the minor differences in the models. && .LONG TERM /MONDAY THROUGH THURSDAY/... Unsettled weather north of our area, a high pressure ridge built into the southern portions of the state will be the main weather features early in the extended period. The high pressure will dominate through early morning Wednesday. Minor troughs will move through the northern portions of Aroostook County bringing a few showers Sunday evening through early Wednesday. A low moving through the upper Great Lakes region Tuesday evening will move to the east of James Bay Wednesday morning bringing a trough into central Maine. The trough will move east of Maine Wednesday evening, keeping Northern Maine in wrap around precipitation. Higher pressure will build across the area early Thursday morning A new low in the Midwest Thursday evening, will move east to the coast by the end of the period. The associated frontal system will affect the SW Coast of Maine by the end of the period. Loaded a blend of models to smooth out the minor differences. && .AVIATION /02Z FRIDAY THROUGH TUESDAY/... NEAR TERM: Restrictions will range from IFR to MVFR thru the overnight period as light to locally heavy rainfall moves through the region. IFR vsbys appear most likely over northern terminals where moderate-hvy rain will likely fall, especially at FVE. Cold front moves through around daybreak with winds gusting to 40-45 kts in wake of fropa thru the aftn. LLWS will plague all terminals thru the overnight hours with BHB likely seeing 75kts LLWS just before 12z, BGR experiencing 70kts of LLWS around 08z. 50-65kts of LLWS further to the north, mainly from 190-200 degrees. SHORT TERM: Friday night through Sunday morning...VFR conditions with increasing clouds and decreasing ceilings Sunday morning. Sunday morning through Sunday evening...MVFR to Low MVFR with scattered showers. Sunday evening through Tuesday...VFR conditions with increasing clouds and decreasing ceilings Tuesday afternoon. && .MARINE... NEAR TERM: We opt`d to increase hdlns to stm wrng ovr the waters with pretty good potential of wind gusts of 50 kt reaching to 10m abv sfc by late tngt and contg into the morn hrs Fri. Aftwrds, we will need a gale wrng for the remainder of day Fri. Went with about 110 percent of WW3/NWPS blended guidance for fcst wv hts. SHORT TO LONG TERM: Gale force winds and seas will be ongoing at the start of the period. Winds will subside to Small Craft Advisory levels in the early morning hours Saturday morning. Seas will diminish below SCA criteria Saturday afternoon. Higher pressure will build across the waters Saturday, winds and seas will remain below SCA through Tuesday. && .HYDROLOGY... Heavy rainfall is expected tonight into early Friday msly across the N and Cntrl ME mtns which will allow rivers and streams to rise sharply. Soil moisture rates will increase w/the initial slug of rain being absorbed, but more heavy rainfall will lead to runoff. Major rivers of the N and W will see some good rises, but they should be able to handle the latest projected additional rainfall of 1-2 inches as they had been trending downward. Some smaller streams and brooks over the NW could fill up w/some reaching near bankfull with some minor flooding of lowlands possible here, but nothing significant is expected attm. Some minor urban flooding is possible due to culverts filling up and clogged storm drains. Strong southerly winds pushing a surge up the Penobscot River at Bangor and heavy rainfall may may result in nearby parking areas in downtown Bangor at the time of high tide late tonight, but it is uncertain attm, with minor flooding a worst case scenario attm. && .TIDES/COASTAL FLOODING... With seas building to between 5 to 10 feet tonight, minor splashover is possible around the time of high tide late tonight. && .CAR WATCHES/WARNINGS/ADVISORIES... ME...High Wind Warning from 6 AM to 6 PM EDT Friday for MEZ001>006- 010-011-031. High Wind Warning from 2 AM to 6 PM EDT Friday for MEZ015>017- 029-030-032. MARINE...Storm Warning from 2 AM to 2 PM EDT Friday for ANZ050>052. && $$ Near Term...Farrar/VJN Short Term...Norton Long Term...Norton/MCW Aviation...Farrar/VJN/Norton Marine...Farrar/VJN/Norton Hydrology...Hewitt/VJN Tides/Coastal Flooding...Farrar
National Weather Service Wilmington OH
948 PM EDT Thu Oct 31 2019 .SYNOPSIS... A strong cold front moved through the area early this morning bringing widespread rain and now gusty winds. Gusty winds and occasional rain showers will continue through the evening hours before diminishing after midnight. A much colder airmass will settle into the area for later tonight and remain through the weekend. && .NEAR TERM /UNTIL 6 AM FRIDAY MORNING/... Eight ASOS/AWOS sites in the ILN CWA recorded gusts to advisory criteria, in addition to an observation at the NWS Wilmington office. After about 830 PM, a gradual drop in wind speeds started becoming apparent across the forecast area, with less gusts in the upper 30 knot range, and more gusts in the 30-35 knot range instead. If this trend continues for another hour or two -- and it is expected to -- the wind advisory may be able to be cancelled before its planned 200 AM expiration time. SPC Mesoanalysis shows that a weakening of the pressure gradient is beginning to occur, and HRRR forecasts indicate that this will become more pronounced in the 02Z-04Z time frame. Aside from the wind, some tweaks for timing were made to PoP (snow) and sky cover grids, though min temps were generally left close to the previous forecast. Despite the strong winds on the cold side of this system, and the big drop in temperatures earlier today, the cold advection is not expected to be overly strong through the overnight hour. Temperatures may only fall another 5-6 degrees or so from current values as of 9PM. Previous discussion > Much of the widespread precipitation has moved on to the east as the cold front pushes out of the area. In the wake of the front, a deepening surface low pressure currently positioned over the southern Great Lakes promotes increasing winds throughout the afternoon and into the evening before gradually decreasing after midnight. Scattered showers potentially mixing with snow at times are possible later this evening as cold air advection ushers in much colder air. Anyone venturing outdoors for this evening`s Trick or Treat activities should use extreme caution. Rapidly falling temperatures will be uncomfortable for those not dressed for warmer weather and intensifying wind gusts could lead to falling limbs and power lines. Isolated rain showers mixing with snow may also lead to uncomfortable conditions at times. With the rain off to the east, the main focus for the near term is on the wind. Steep pressure falls have been occurring to the northeast throughout the afternoon, resulting in a surge in winds the last couple of hours as the pressure gradient increases. Observations revealed several sustained winds between 25-35 mph to the north with gusts around 40 mph. As of 330 PM, the peak wind gust was 43 mph at Dayton International. With pressure falls continuing through the evening, model consensus is that winds will increase over the next few hours before peaking during the evening. HREF mean wind gust probabilities show a large swath of 45-50 mph with a few isolated pockets of 50 to 55 mph. This is in good agreement with ECMWF ensemble mean peak gusts in the mid 50s for the same areas. Therefore, updated wind advisory this afternoon for occasional gusts around 55 mph, primarily for northern portions of the forecast area along I-70 and northward. Further south, wind gusts around 45 mph are expected with sustained winds between 20-30 mph. With these numbers in mind, the wind advisory was also updated by extending it southward to the Cincinnati Metro area and Ohio River. Wind gusts to 40 mph are still possible in northern Kentucky, but chose not to include these areas in the advisory due to distance from the low pressure and frictional effects. As the low pressure pulls away overnight, winds gradually decrease toward Friday morning. The strong CAA is leading to rapidly falling temperatures from west to east this afternoon and this will continue through the evening. Temperatures have already dropped nearly 20 degrees around the Dayton and Cincinnati. Wrap around moisture is also advancing into central Indiana and this will brush across at least northwest portions of our area heading toward this evening. With the colder air moving in, any pcpn will mix with/change to snow showers heading through this evening before precipitation moves out. With the ground still warm, any accumulation across our northwest should be minor and generally limited to elevated surfaces or possibly grassy areas. Finally, temperatures are expected to fall below freezing by later tonight. Freeze warning remains in place as temperatures drop to the mid to upper 20s by Friday morning. && .SHORT TERM /6 AM FRIDAY MORNING THROUGH FRIDAY NIGHT/... Surface high pressure will build northeast across the Ohio Valley through the day on Friday. This will provide for dry but continued cool conditions. Temperatures will be well below normal on Friday with afternoon highs mostly in the mid 40s. && .LONG TERM /SATURDAY THROUGH THURSDAY/... Saturday starts with a longwave trough crossing east through the Ohio Valley as high pressure builds in the mid section of the country. Some cold pool showers may be present during the day, primarily in the northern sections of the CWA, roughly the I-70 corridor. These will be sparked by the combination of the cold air overturning, vorticity within the l/w trough and sunshine hitting the column, if there is any sun available. Daytime insolation will at least come into account, and any showers lingering by afternoon will quickly wane to nothing by nightfall. Temperatures for the weekend will generally be static - upper 40s for highs and overnight lows Saturday night being similar to what is expected tonight - upper 20s. Lows Sunday night will be a bit warmer in the lower 30s, with some slightly milder mid 30s in the northwest due to a southerly flow kicking in overnight. This south flow will continue over the region and warm temperatures to the mid and upper 50s Monday and Tuesday. A front will cross later Tuesday and showers will occur as it passes. High pressure in the Upper Midwest then builds in and gives reinforcing shots of cold air from Tuesday night onward. Models diverge in the late portions of the forecast which gives a lower confidence but is entirely typical in cold and more active patterns of fall. && .AVIATION /02Z FRIDAY THROUGH TUESDAY/... Gusty winds remain the primary concern for the TAFs, with all six airports currently experiencing gusts into the 30-40 knot range. This should continue through the 02Z-04Z time frame, after which the wind gusts will begin a marked diminishing trend, ending up below 10 knots by 12Z and through the day tomorrow. While there have been a few reports this evening of very light wintry precipitation -- snow or sleet -- this is not expected to have much of an impact on aviation conditions. A couple TEMPO groups were included to add some brief MVFR visibilities. Otherwise, the only item to discuss is the cloud forecast, with MVFR ceilings expected to persist through much of the overnight. There is high confidence that these MVFR ceilings will scour out by 12Z at the latest, with VFR conditions after that occurs. OUTLOOK...MVFR ceilings are possible again Saturday night. && .ILN WATCHES/WARNINGS/ADVISORIES... OH...Freeze Warning until 11 AM EDT Friday for OHZ026-034-035- 042>046-051>056-060>065-070>074-077>082-088. Wind Advisory until 2 AM EDT Friday for OHZ026-034-035-042>046- 051>056-060>065-070>074-077>082-088. KY...Freeze Warning until 11 AM EDT Friday for KYZ089>100. Wind Advisory until 2 AM EDT Friday for KYZ091>093. IN...Freeze Warning until 11 AM EDT Friday for INZ050-058-059-066- 073>075-080. Wind Advisory until 2 AM EDT Friday for INZ050-058-059-066- 073>075. && $$ SYNOPSIS...McGinnis NEAR TERM...Hatzos/McGinnis SHORT TERM...McGinnis LONG TERM...Franks AVIATION...Hatzos