Rapid Refresh (RAP)
- An operational NOAA/ NCEP hourly updating operational weather prediction system covering North America comprised primarily of a numerical forecast model and an analysis/assimilation system to initialize that model.
NCEP implementation of 3km HRRR is currently planned for July 2014.
Recent RAPv2/HRRR presentations
From NWS RAPv2 webinar - Feb 2014 .
From NCEP Model Review - Dec 2013 .
Additional information on the RAPv2 implementation at NCEP is in this NWS Technical Implementation Note (TIN, amended 15 Jan 2013). .
The NCEP Rapid Refresh uses
a RAP-configuration of the WRF model, with ARW core
with this physics suite: Grell-G3 convection,
Thompson/NCAR microphysics, RRTM longwave radiation, Goddard
shortwave radiation, MYNN-Olson turbulent mixing, RUC-Smirnova
- a RAP-configuration of the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) analysis system. (with cloud/hydrometeor analysis added, similar to RUC)
- 13-km horizontal resolution, 50 vertical levels, ptop=10hPa, sigma vertical coordinate
- rotated lat-lon projection grid (change from previous Lambert conformal grid in July-Oct 2010) with a 759x567 mass-point domain (Arakawa C grid) More domain info here.
- Uses 1/12-deg NCEP sea-surface temperatures
- Output grids to be available from NCEP (including those exactly matching grids currently available from RUC.
- Rapid Refresh (RAPv2) has a number of differences from RAPv1
- Model core: WRFv3.4.1+ instead of WRFv3.2.1+
- Model physics: MYNN-Olson boundary-layer scheme instead of MYJ, improved versions of Thompson microphysics (v3.4) and RUC/Smirnova land-surface model (9-level v3.5 instead of 6-level)
- Surface fields: MODIS land-surface data including fractional coverage
- Numerics: 5th-order vertical advection instead of 3rd-order, w-damping upper boundary condition.
- Data assimilation: Ensemble/hybrid/GSI data assimilation (using GFS assimilation ensemble) and GSI from Jan 2013 vs. 2010 version using 3d-varfor NCEP RAP.
- New observations assimilated: GOES cloud building, lightning (proxy for radar reflectivity), pseudo-PBL moisture obs from 2m dewpoint obs, soil moisture adjustment within data assimilation, improved radar assimilation.
- The ESRL RAP contributes to initialize the 3km High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR), providing a background for a 1-h assimilation cycle with 15-min radar and 3-km GSI before the HRRR is initialized.
High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR)
- A experimental 3-km hourly updated nest inside of the 13km Rapid Refresh
(using the 13km RAP as parent model followed by 3-km data assimilation).
- Real-time products from 3km HRRR
- 25 Feb 2014. NCEP implementation of RAP version 2 to replace RAPv1 occurred as planned at 12z 25 Feb 2014. Summary on upcoming RAPv2 implementation to NWS Regions - 18 Feb 2014 . -- NWS Technical Implementation Note (TIN). .
- 8 Apr 2013. Major upgrade to ESRL RAP (and HRRR) over Jan-April 2013 period, details here.
1 May 2012.
RAP implementation occurred
at 12z that day. The last RUC run was at 11z that day
See latest NWS TIN bulletin on RAP implementation at
- 15 Mar 2012.Updated briefing on Rapid Refresh.
- high-frequency updated (every 1h) short-range weather model forecasts (out to 18h) in support of aviation, severe weather, energy, and other mesoscale weather forecast users
high-frequency (every 1h) 3-d objective analyses
over all of North America,
assimilating the following types of observations:
- Commercial aircraft (including moisture data from WVSS-II sensors)
- Profiler related
- Wind profilers (404 and boundary-layer 915 MHz)
- VAD (velocity-azimuth display) winds from NWS WSR-88D radars
- RASS (Radio Acoustic Sounding System)
- Rawinsondes and special dropwinsondes
- Radar reflectivity (3-d)
- Surface reporting stations and buoys (including cloud, visibility, current weather)
- Mesonet (defer to RAP version 2)
- AMSU-A/B satellite radiances
- GOES satellite radiances (defer to RAP version 2)
- GPS total precipitable water estimates
- GOES cloud-top data (pressure and temperature)
- GOES high-density visible and IR cloud drift winds
- Lightning - defer to RAPv2 (used in ESRL RAP since Jan 2012)
- Special wind-energy observations - defer to RAPv2 (used in ESRL RAP)
The key features of the Rapid Refresh include:
Access to real-time and archive RAP grids