Rapid Refresh (RAP)
- An operational NOAA/
hourly updating operational weather prediction system
covering North America
comprised primarily of
- A numerical forecast model
- An analysis/assimilation system to initialize that model.
- NOTE:The operational NCEP RAP (version 1) uses slightly older versions of forecast model (WRF) and assimilation (GSI) code while the experimental ESRL RAP (version 2) uses updated versions. Major upgrade to RAPv2 during Jan-April 2013, finalized 3 April 2013, Details here.
- The NCEP Rapid Refresh (RAPv1) uses a
a RAP-configuration of the WRF model, with ARW core
(v3.2.1+) with generally RUC-like physics (Grell-G3 convection,
Thompson/NCAR microphysics, RRTM longwave radiation, Goddard
shortwave radiation, MYJ turbulent mixing, RUC-Smirnova
- a RAP-configuration of the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) analysis system. (with cloud/hydrometeor analysis added, similar to RUC)
- 13-km horizontal resolution, 50 vertical levels, ptop=10hPa, sigma vertical coordinate
- rotated lat-lon projection grid (change from previous Lambert conformal grid in July-Oct 2010) with a 759x567 mass-point domain (Arakawa C grid) More domain info here.
- Uses 1/12-deg NCEP sea-surface temperatures
- Output grids to be available from NCEP (including those exactly matching grids currently available from RUC.
- The experimental ESRL Rapid Refresh (RAPv2) has a number of differences
Updated 8 April 2013):
- Model core: WRFv3.4.1+ instead of WRFv3.2.1+
- Model physics: MYNN-Olson boundary-layer scheme instead of MYJ, improved versions of Thompson microphysics (v3.4) and RUC/Smirnova land-surface model (9-level v3.5 instead of 6-level)
- Surface fields: MODIS land-surface data including fractional coverage
- Numerics: 5th-order vertical advection instead of 3rd-order, w-damping upper boundary condition.
- Data assimilation: Ensemble/hybrid/GSI data assimilation (using GFS assimilation ensemble) and GSI from Jan 2013 vs. 2010 version using 3d-varfor NCEP RAP.
- New observations assimilated: GOES cloud building, lightning (proxy for radar reflectivity), tower/nacelle/sodar observations, pseudo-PBL moisture obs, soil moisture adjustment within data assimilation, improved radar assimilation.
- The ESRL RAP contributes to initialize the 3km High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR), providing a background for a 1-h assimilation cycle with 15-min radar and 3-km GSI before the HRRR is initialized.
High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR)
- A experimental 3-km hourly updated nest inside of the 13km Rapid Refresh
(using the 13km RAP as parent model followed by 3-km data assimilation).
- Real-time products from 3km HRRR
- 8 Apr 2013 Major upgrade to ESRL RAP (and HRRR) over Jan-April 2013 period, details here.
1 May 2012
RAP implementation occurred
at 12z that day. The last RUC run was at 11z that day
See latest NWS TIN bulletin on RAP implementation at
- 15 Mar 2012Updated briefing on Rapid Refresh.
28 Dec 2011
Updated Rapid Refresh information (along with information
on future versions of RAP and HRRR) is available
(presented on 7 Dec 2011 at the NCEP Production
- 30 Nov 2011A full Technical Implementation Notice (TIN) on the upcoming RAP implementation was issued on 11-30-2011. Testing continues at NCEP/EMC and NOAA/ESRL
- 1 June 2009 - RR now running with WRFv3.0.1, testing underway with WRFv3.1, using improved version of DFI, upper-level damping, improved version of RUC-Smirnova land-surface model with snow-on-ice (ocean and lakes) treatment.
- 7 July 2008 - 1h Rapid Refresh cycle is now running with improved reliability, as of last week. Now includes DFI every hour, cloud/hydrometeor analysis. Cold bias removed - problem with ARW-GSI interaction on soil moisture.
- 11 Dec 2007 - Updated summary on Rapid Refresh development/plans presented at NCEP Production Suite Review meeting. RR info starts on slide 35, but the preceding slides on the RUC 2008-upgrade are also very relevant to the Rapid Refresh (radar reflectivity assimilation, TAMDAR, upgrades to Grell-Devenyi convection, RUC land-sfc).
- 10 Nov 2007 - The experimental Rapid Refresh is running only in a shake-down period at this point. There is a 6-h cycle with GSI and WRF (RR versions of both), but not with satellite radiance assimilation yet, and without the RUC/RR cloud analysis yet or other RR enhancements.
- 2 Nov 2007 - Rapid Refresh summary - from RUC/RR Technical Review on 30 Oct 07.
- high-frequency updated (every 1h) short-range weather model forecasts (out to 18h) in support of aviation, severe weather, energy, and other mesoscale weather forecast users
high-frequency (every 1h) 3-d objective analyses
over all of North America,
assimilating the following types of observations:
- Commercial aircraft (including moisture data from WVSS-II sensors)
- Profiler related
- Wind profilers (404 and boundary-layer 915 MHz)
- VAD (velocity-azimuth display) winds from NWS WSR-88D radars
- RASS (Radio Acoustic Sounding System)
- Rawinsondes and special dropwinsondes
- Radar reflectivity (3-d)
- Surface reporting stations and buoys (including cloud, visibility, current weather)
- Mesonet (defer to RAP version 2)
- AMSU-A/B satellite radiances
- GOES satellite radiances (defer to RAP version 2)
- GPS total precipitable water estimates
- GOES cloud-top data (pressure and temperature)
- GOES high-density visible and IR cloud drift winds
- Lightning - defer to RAPv2 (used in ESRL RAP since Jan 2012)
- Special wind-energy observations - defer to RAPv2 (used in ESRL RAP)
The key features of the Rapid Refresh include:
Access to real-time and archive RAP grids