Rapid Refresh (RAP)High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) model, which is also updated hourly and covering a smaller geographic domain.
- RAPv1 - implemented 1 May 2012 at NCEP (replacing the Rapid Update Cycle - RUC )
- RAPv2 - implemented 25 Feb 2014 at NCEP
- RAPv3 - scheduled for late June 2016 at NCEP, running in real-time demo at ESRL.
Experimental HRRRv2/RAPv3 implemented at ESRL 1 Jan 2015.
- significant further improvement for summer/winter storm environment
- advanced physics with WRFv3.6, assimilation, improved initial conditions for HRRR.
- More information in graphic summary, changes shaded red. and in HRRR/RAP July 2015 presentation to NCEP.
- Complete RAP (v1-v3) description in Benjamin et al. 2016, A North American Hourly Assimilation and Model Forecast Cycle: The Rapid Refresh. Mon. Wea. Rev., 144, 1669-1694.
Recent RAP/HRRR presentations
- HRRR/RAP July 2015 presentation to NCEP
- Experimental 2014-very-early-version-RAPv3 implementation at ESRL completed on 10 April 2014 - improved storm environment, assimilation. Preliminary ESRL RAPv3/HRRRv2 info here.
- From NWS RAPv2 webinar - Feb 2014 .
- Additional information on the RAPv2 implementation at NCEP is in this NWS Technical Implementation Note (TIN, amended 15 Jan 2013). .
The NCEP Rapid Refresh (currently RAPv2) uses
a RAP-specific configuration of the WRF model with ARW core
with this physics suite (as of RAPv2): Grell-G3 convection,
Thompson/NCAR microphysics, RRTM longwave radiation, Goddard
shortwave radiation, MYNN-Olson turbulent mixing, RUC-Smirnova
- a RAP-configuration of the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) analysis system. (with cloud/hydrometeor analysis added, similar to RUC)
- 13-km horizontal resolution, 50 vertical levels, ptop=10hPa, sigma vertical coordinate
- rotated lat-lon projection grid (change from previous Lambert conformal grid in July-Oct 2010) with a 759x567 mass-point domain (Arakawa C grid) More domain info here.
- Uses 1/12-deg NCEP sea-surface temperatures
- Output grids to be available from NCEP (including those exactly matching grids currently available from RUC.
- Rapid Refresh (RAPv3, running at ESRL in real-time demo in early 2015)
uses the following options. Some key differences from RAPv2
are identified below and in this
graphic summary, changes shaded red.
- Model core: WRFv3.6.1+ instead of WRFv3.4.1+ (WRFv3.2.1 used in RAPv1)
- Model physics: MYNN-Olson boundary-layer scheme, aerosol-aware Thompson cloud microphysics (v3.6) improved v3.6 RUC/Smirnova land-surface model (9-level)
- Surface fields: MODIS land-surface data including fractional coverage
- Numerics: 5th-order vertical advection, w-damping upper boundary condition.
- Data assimilation: Ensemble/hybrid/GSI data assimilation (using GFS assimilation ensemble and GSI)
- Observations assimilated: GOES cloud building, lightning (proxy for radar reflectivity), pseudo-PBL temp/moisture obs from 2m temp/dewpoint obs, soil moisture adjustment within data assimilation, improved radar assimilation.
- The ESRL RAP contributes to initialize the 3km High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR), providing a background for a HRRR-internal 1-h assimilation cycle with 15-min radar and 3-km GSI before the HRRR is initialized.
High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR)
- A experimental 3-km hourly updated nest inside of the 13km Rapid Refresh
(using the 13km RAP as parent model followed by 3-km data assimilation).
- HRRR home page / info
- Real-time products from 3km HRRR
- 25 Feb 2014. NCEP implementation of RAP version 2 to replace RAPv1 occurred as planned at 12z 25 Feb 2014. Summary on upcoming RAPv2 implementation to NWS Regions - 18 Feb 2014 . -- NWS Technical Implementation Note (TIN). .
- 8 Apr 2013. Major upgrade to ESRL RAP (and HRRR) over Jan-April 2013 period, details here.
1 May 2012.
RAP implementation occurred
at 12z that day. The last RUC run was at 11z that day
See latest NWS TIN bulletin on RAP implementation at
- 15 Mar 2012.Updated briefing on Rapid Refresh.
- high-frequency updated (every 1h) short-range weather model forecasts (out to 18h) in support of aviation, severe weather, energy, and other mesoscale weather forecast users
high-frequency (every 1h) 3-d objective analyses
over all of North America,
assimilating the following types of observations:
- Commercial aircraft (including moisture data from WVSS-II sensors)
- Profiler related
- Wind profilers (404 and boundary-layer 915 MHz)
- VAD (velocity-azimuth display) winds from NWS WSR-88D radars
- RASS (Radio Acoustic Sounding System)
- Rawinsondes and special dropwinsondes
- Radar reflectivity (3-d)
- Surface reporting stations and buoys (including cloud, visibility, current weather)
- Mesonet (defer to RAP version 2)
- AMSU-A/B satellite radiances
- GOES satellite radiances (defer to RAP version 2)
- GPS total precipitable water estimates
- GOES cloud-top data (pressure and temperature)
- GOES high-density visible and IR cloud drift winds
- Lightning - defer to RAPv2 (used in ESRL RAP since Jan 2012)
- Special wind-energy observations - defer to RAPv2 (used in ESRL RAP)
The key features of the Rapid Refresh include:
Access to real-time and archive RAP grids